English


YEAR-RECEPTION (FOUNDATION)

Lesson Structure

Reading and Viewing – Receptions begin the year with letter recognition work and daily exposure to various literatures. They begin reading high frequency words and basic books. Once capable, Receptions begin guided reading lessons four times a week. During these lessons students are grouped according to their reading levels. In small groups with their teacher, they are guided through a higher comprehension of the text.

Writing – Receptions are encouraged to write in some form every day. At the start of the year this will begin with the drawing of a message, scribing, tracing and progress towards writing a few sentences by the end of the year. Receptions are encouraged to spell accurately. They are given weekly spelling words and are exposed to various spelling patterns.

Speaking and Listening – Receptions develop their listening and speaking skills daily with their peers and teachers. They present at weekly show and tell sessions and provide various oral presentations. Receptions develop effective speaking skills such as using correct eye contact and appropriate gestures.

Benchmarks and Recommendations

Reading and viewing – It is recommended that Reception students practice reading their ‘THRASS hot words – level 1’ (which are high frequency words) every night. When the student is confident with reading all of the words in the set inform the teacher so that the student may be tested. Students will be allocated a reading level based on a Running Record assessment taken by the teacher. Students should read their Reader to a proficient reader every night. It is recommended that the student is asked questions about the book to help them understand what they have read. Students are tested once a term on their reading levels and given reading books accordingly, however if the reader is too difficult or too easy, the parent should inform the class teacher.

Writing – It is recommended that Receptions have regular handwriting and writing practice. Students should practice correct letter formation and size, and writing on the lines every night. It is important that students practice their spelling words and practice placing them into sentences.

Speaking and listening – It is beneficial for students to practice their oral presentations before they present them at school. Students should practice using a clear legible voice and speak coherently.

Foundation/Reception Year Achievement Standard

Receptive modes (listening, reading and viewing)

By the end of the Foundation year, students use predicting and questioning strategies to make meaning from texts. They recall one or two events from texts with familiar topics. They understand that there are different types of texts and that these can have similar characteristics. They identify connections between texts and their personal experience.

They read short, predictable texts with familiar vocabulary and supportive images, drawing on their developing knowledge of concepts about print and sound and letters. They identify the letters of the English alphabet and use the sounds represented by most letters. They listen to and use appropriate language features to respond to others in a familiar environment. They listen for rhyme, letter patterns and sounds in words.

Productive modes (speaking, writing and creating)

Students understand that their texts can reflect their own experiences. They identify and describe likes and dislikes about familiar texts, objects, characters and events.

In informal group and whole class settings, students communicate clearly. They retell events and experiences with peers and known adults. They identify and use rhyme, letter patterns and sounds in words. When writing, students use familiar words and phrases and images to convey ideas. Their writing shows evidence of sound and letter knowledge, beginning writing behaviours and experimentation with capital letters and full stops. They correctly form known upper- and lower-case letters.


 

YEAR 1

Lesson Structure

Reading & Viewing–Students participate in guided reading lessons four times a week. During these lessons students mix with the other year 1 classes, and are grouped according to their reading levels. In small groups, with the aid of the teacher, students are taught reading strategies to help develop their comprehension. These strategies are further reinforced with other activities.

Year 1 students practice reading their ‘THRASS hot words – level 2’ (high frequency words) daily. After lunch students participate in daily silent reading. During this time the teacher may choose to listen to children read individually, and provide feedback about their reading.

Writing – Students participate in daily writing activities and continue improving their basic sentence structure. They begin using capital letters and full stops in their writing. They begin implementing simple editing skills such as rereading their written work and finding ways to improve their writing. They are gradually introduced to various genres such as recount and procedure. They are exposed to the structure of these genres and the language features associated with the genres. Weekly handwriting sessions help in improving handwriting.

Speaking and Listening – Our Year 1 students develop their speaking skills daily with their peers and teachers. They present at weekly show-and-tell sessions and provide various oral presentations. They learn about the importance of facial expressions and gestures while presenting. They participate in discussions and listen effectively to others presenting.

Benchmarks and Recommendations

Reading and Viewing – It is recommended that Year 1s practice reading their ‘THRASS hot words – level 2’ (high frequency words) nightly. They should revise the Reception ‘THRASS hot words – level 1’ words also. When the child is confident reading all of the words in the Year 1 set, the teacher should be informed for testing to occur. Students will be allocated a reading level based on a Running Record assessment taken by the teacher. Students should read their reader to a proficient reader every night and be asked comprehension questions about the book. Students are tested once a term on their reading levels, however if the reader is too difficult or easy, the parent should inform the class teacher.

Writing – It is recommended that Year 1 students regularly practice handwriting and writing. Students should practice correct letter formation and size, and writing on the lines every night. It is important that students practice their spelling words and place them into sentences. The correct spelling of high frequency words should be practiced and emphasised.

Speaking and listening – It is beneficial for students to practice their oral presentations before they present them at school. Students should practice using a clear legible voice and speaking coherently. Students should be encouraged to provide detail and use adjectives in their speeches.

Year 1 Achievement Standard

Receptive modes (listening, reading and viewing)

By the end of Year 1, students understand the different purposes of texts. They make connections to personal experience when explaining characters and main events in short texts. They identify the language features, images and vocabulary used to describe characters and events.

Students read aloud, with developing fluency and intonation, short texts with some unfamiliar vocabulary, simple and compound sentences and supportive images. When reading, they use knowledge of sounds and letters, high frequency words, sentence boundary punctuation and directionality to make meaning. They recall key ideas and recognise literal and implied meaning in texts. They listen to others when taking part in conversations, using appropriate language features. They listen for and reproduce letter patterns and letter clusters.

Productive modes (speaking, writing and creating)

Students understand how characters in texts are developed and give reasons for personal preferences. They create texts that show understanding of the connection between writing, speech and images.

They create short texts for a small range of purposes. They interact in pair, group and class discussions, taking turns when responding. They make short presentations of a few connected sentences on familiar and learned topics. When writing, students provide details about ideas or events. They accurately spell words with regular spelling patterns and use capital letters and full stops. They correctly form all upper- and lower-case letters.

 

YEAR 2

Lesson Structure

Reading and Viewing –Our Year 2 students participate in guided reading lessons four times a week. During these lessons students mix with the other Year 2 classes, and are grouped according to their reading levels. In small groups, with the aid of the teacher, students are taught reading strategies to help develop their comprehension. These strategies are further reinforced with other activities.

Year 2 students practice reading their ‘THRASS hot words – level 3’ (high frequency words) daily. After lunch students participate in daily silent reading. During this time the teacher may choose to listen to children read individually, and provide feedback about their reading.

Writing – Year 2 students participate in daily writing activities and continue improving and enhancing their sentences. They accurately use the correct punctuation in their writing. They reread and begin to edit their written work to improve their spelling and sentence structure. They are introduced to various forms of genres such as exposition and reports. They are taught the structure of these genres and the language features associated with the genre. They continue improving their handwriting and have weekly handwriting lessons.

Speaking and Listening – Our Year 2 students enhance their speaking skills daily with their peers, teachers and the community. They are taught how to adapt their speeches based on which audience it will be directed to. They present at weekly show and tell sessions and provide various oral presentations. They participate in discussions and listen effectively to others presenting.

Benchmarks and Recommendations

Reading and viewing – It is recommended that Year 2 students practice reading their ‘THRASS hot words – level 3’ (high frequency words) nightly. They should revise the Reception and Year 1 ‘THRASS hot words – level 1 and 2’ words also. When the child is confident reading all of the words in the Year 2 set, the teacher should be informed for testing to occur. Students will be allocated a reading level based on a Running Record assessment taken by the teacher. Students should read their reader to a proficient reader every night and asked comprehension questions about the book. Students are tested once a term on their reading levels, however if the reader is too difficult or easy, the parent should inform the class teacher.

Writing – It is recommended that Year 2 students have regular practice handwriting and writing. Students should practice correct letter formation and size, and writing on the lines every night. It is important that students practice their spelling words and place them into sentences. The correct spelling of high frequency words should be practiced and emphasised.

Speaking and listening – It is beneficial for students to practice their oral presentations before they present them at school. Students should practice using a clear legible voice and speaking coherently. Students should be encouraged to provide detail and use adjectives in their speeches.

Year 2 Achievement Standard

Receptive modes (listening, reading and viewing)

By the end of Year 2, students understand how similar texts share characteristics by identifying text structures and language features used to describe characters, settings and events.

They read texts that contain varied sentence structures, some unfamiliar vocabulary, a significant number of high frequency sight words and images that provide additional information. They monitor meaning and self-correct using context, prior knowledge, punctuation, language and phonic knowledge. They identify literal and implied meaning, main ideas and supporting detail. Students make connections between texts by comparing content. They listen for particular purposes. They listen for and manipulate sound combinations and rhythmic sound patterns.

Productive modes (speaking, writing and creating)

When discussing their ideas and experiences, students use everyday language features and topic-specific vocabulary. They explain their preferences for aspects of texts using other texts as comparisons. They create texts that show how images support the meaning of the text.

Students create texts, drawing on their own experiences, their imagination and information they have learned. They use a variety of strategies to engage in group and class discussions and make presentations. They accurately spell familiar words and attempt to spell less familiar words and use punctuation accurately. They legibly write unjoined upper- and lower-case letters.

 

YEAR 3

The English curriculum is built around the three interrelated strands of Language, Literature and Literacy. Teaching and learning programs should balance and integrate all three strands. The focus is on developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills in listening, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating.

Overview

In English, students explore a range of texts with different text structures, depending on purpose and audience. They learn how language features, images and vocabulary help to engage the interest of audiences. They then use appropriate language features, images and vocabulary to create structured texts that suit the purpose and audience. They also learn to describe literal and implied meaning using different reading strategies to connect ideas in different texts. They explain their preferences for particular texts and respond to other’s viewpoints. The range of literary texts comprises Australian literature, including the oral narrative traditions and contemporary literature of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, and the classic and contemporary world literature, including texts from and about Asia. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions. They listen for significant points in discussions.

Lesson Structure

Reading and Viewing–Our Year 3 students participate in guided reading lessons four times a week. During these lessons students mix with the other Year 3 classes, and are grouped according to their reading levels. In small groups, with the aid of the teacher, students are taught reading strategies to help develop their comprehension. These strategies are further reinforced with other activities.

After lunch students participate in daily silent reading. During this time the teacher may choose to listen to children read individually, and provide feedback about their reading.

Writing – Our Year 3 students participate in daily writing activities and continue improving and enhancing their writing. They begin using paragraphs and edit their work for correct meaning, structure and spelling. They are introduced to various forms of genres such as exposition, reports and narratives. They are taught the structure of these genres and the language features associated with the genre. They are introduced to joined handwriting.

Speaking and Listening – Year 3 students communicate with their peers, teachers, the community and various schools via online or virtual environments. They are taught the various social conventions of speaking such as taking turns and how to address people. They present at weekly show-and-tell sessions and provide various oral presentations. They participate in discussions and listen effectively to others presenting.

Scope and Sequences

Garden College has an established genre scope and sequence which is followed when teaching English. Elements of Language, Literature and Literacy from the table below are integrated and taught through the genre focused on, throughout each unit.

Language  Literature Literacy
Language variation and change Literature and context Texts in context
Language for interaction Responding to literature Interacting with others
Text structure and organisation Examining literature Interpreting, analysing and evaluating
Expressing and developing ideas Creating literature Creating texts
Sound and letter knowledge

Content descriptors are online and will inform teacher’s programming

www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/English/Content-structure

Assessment

Assessment includes:

  • NAPLAN
  • Informal and formal running records
  • Ongoing checklists
  • Observations and Anecdotal notes
  • Portfolio, diaries, learning logs
  • Rubrics to assess skills and content
  • Comprehensive Assessment of Reading Strategies (CARS)

Resources

English Resources referenced regularly include:

  • THRASS handwriting booklet
  • 100 THRASS hot words flash cards
  • Running Records Benchmark Kit
  • IWB Flipchart on Garden Server
  • Word Up Spelling Book 3

Benchmarks and Recommendations

Reading and viewing – Year 3 students should continue reading the ‘THRASS hot words – levels 1- 3’ (high frequency words) regularly to ensure fluency. Students will be allocated a reading level based on a Running Record assessment taken by the teacher. Students should read their reader to a proficient reader every night and asked comprehension questions about the book. They are tested once a term on their reading levels, however if the reader is too difficult or easy, the parent should inform the class teacher.

Writing – It is recommended that Year 3 students regularly practice handwriting and writing at home. Students should practice correct letter formation, size, and writing on the lines using the joined handwriting. It is important that students practice their spelling words and place them into sentences. The correct spelling of high frequency words should be practiced and emphasised.

Speaking and listening – It is beneficial for students to practice their oral presentations before they present them at school. Students should practice using a clear legible voice and speaking coherently. Students should be encouraged to provide detail and use adjectives in their speeches.

Year 3 Achievement Standard

Receptive modes (listening, reading and viewing)

By the end of Year 3, students understand how content can be organised using different text structures depending on the purpose of the text. They understand how language features, images and vocabulary choices are used for different effects.

They read texts that contain varied sentence structures, a range of punctuation conventions, and images that provide additional information. They identify literal and implied meaning connecting ideas in different parts of a text. They select information, ideas and events in texts that relate to their own lives and to other texts. They listen to others’ views and respond appropriately.

Productive modes (speaking, writing and creating)

Students understand how language features are used to link and sequence ideas. They understand how language can be used to express feelings and opinions on topics. Their texts include writing and images to express and develop in some detail experiences, events, information, ideas and characters.

Students create a range of texts for familiar and unfamiliar audiences. They contribute actively to class and group discussions, asking questions, providing useful feedback and making presentations. They demonstrate understanding of grammar and choose vocabulary and punctuation appropriate to the purpose and context of their writing. They use knowledge of sounds and high frequency words to spell words accurately, checking their work for meaning. They write using joined letters that are accurately formed and consistent in size.


 

Year 4

The English curriculum is built around the three interrelated strands of Language, Literature and Literacy. Teaching and learning programs should balance and integrate all three strands. The focus is on developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills in listening, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating.

Overview

In English, students explore a range of texts with different text structures, depending on purpose and audience. They learn how language features, images and vocabulary help to engage the interest of audiences. They then use appropriate language features, images and vocabulary to create structured texts that suit the purpose and audience. They also learn to describe literal and implied meaning using different reading strategies to connect ideas in different texts. They explain their preferences for particular texts and respond to other’s viewpoints. The range of literary texts comprises Australian literature, including the oral narrative traditions and contemporary literature of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, and the classic and contemporary world literature, including texts from and about Asia. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions. They listen for significant points in discussions.

Lesson Structure

In Year 4, students actively participate in Shared Reading Sessions as well as Reciprocal/Guided Reading Sessions. These sessions usually take place in the morning and include reading and writing. When students are doing guided reading, they are exposed to reading cues, word study and grammar skills. Reading strategies are taught explicitly through the CARS and STARS program and the implementation of reciprocal reading teaches students to use reading comprehension strategies independently. These strategies include text prediction, summarisation, question generation and clarification of unknown or unclear content. During writing sessions students practice handwriting and are also exposed to different text types such as narrative, recount, explanation and procedure throughout the year.

Scope and Sequences

Garden College has an established genre scope and sequence which is followed when teaching English. Elements of Language, Literature and Literacy from the table below are integrated and taught through the genre focused on, throughout each unit.

Language Literature Literacy 
Language variation and change Literature and context Texts in context
Language for interaction Responding to literature Interacting with others
Text structure and organisation Examining literature Interpreting, analysing and evaluating
Expressing and developing ideas Creating literature Creating texts
Sound and letter knowledge

Content descriptors are online and will inform teacher’s programming

www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/English/Content-structure

Assessment

Assessment includes:

  • PROBE Comprehension assessments
  • Ongoing checklists
  • Observations and Anecdotal notes
  • Portfolio
  • Rubrics to assess skills and content
  • Comprehensive Assessment of Reading Strategies (CARS)

Resources

English Resources referenced regularly include:

  • CARS and STARS
  • Grammar through text types
  • English for a Purpose
  • IWB Flipchart on Garden Server
  • Word Up Spelling Book 4

Benchmarks and Recommendations

Writing – In Year 4, students are expected to write two examples of a genre each term, with one of the work samples integrated into their Inquiry topic.

Spelling – Students are expected to learn the spelling patterns of up to 15 words each week and are expected to be able to demonstrate correct spelling of all common words in their writing.

Reading – Students are expected to be able to read a variety of texts independently in Year 4.

Year 4 Achievement Standard

Receptive modes (listening, reading and viewing)

By the end of Year 4, students understand that texts have different text structures depending on purpose and audience. They explain how language features, images and vocabulary are used to engage the interest of audiences.

They describe literal and implied meaning connecting ideas in different texts. They express preferences for particular texts, and respond to others’ viewpoints. They listen for key points in discussions.

Productive modes (speaking, writing and creating)

Students use language features to create coherence and add detail to their texts. They understand how to express an opinion based on information in a text. They create texts that show understanding of how images and detail can be used to extend key ideas.

Students create structured texts to explain ideas for different audiences. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, varying language according to context. They demonstrate understanding of grammar, select vocabulary from a range of resources and use accurate spelling and punctuation, editing their work to improve meaning.


 

Year 5

The English curriculum is built around the three interrelated strands of Language, Literature and Literacy. Teaching and learning programs should balance and integrate all three strands. The focus is on developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills in listening, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating.

Overview

In English, students explore a range of texts with different text structures, depending on purpose and audience. They learn how language features, images and vocabulary help to engage the interest of audiences. They then use appropriate language features, images and vocabulary to create structured texts that suit the purpose and audience. They also learn to describe literal and implied meaning using different reading strategies to connect ideas in different texts. They explain their preferences for particular texts and respond to other’s viewpoints. The range of literary texts comprises Australian literature, including the oral narrative traditions and contemporary literature of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, and the classic and contemporary world literature, including texts from and about Asia. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions. They listen for significant points in discussions.

Lesson Structure

In Year 5, students actively participate in Shared Reading Sessions as well as Reciprocal/Guided Reading Sessions. These sessions usually take place in the morning and include reading and writing. When students are doing guided reading, they are exposed to reading cues, word study and grammar skills. Reading strategies are taught explicitly through the CARS and STARS program and the implementation of reciprocal reading teaches students to use reading comprehension strategies independently. These strategies include text prediction, summarisation, question generation and clarification of unknown or unclear content. During writing sessions students practice handwriting and are also exposed to different text types such as narrative, recount, explanation, persuasive and procedure throughout the year.

Scope and Sequences

Garden College has an established genre scope and sequence which is followed when teaching English. Elements of Language, Literature and Literacy from the table below are integrated and taught through the genre focused on, throughout each unit.

Language Literature Literacy 
Language variation and change Literature and context Texts in context
Language for interaction Responding to literature Interacting with others
Text structure and organisation Examining literature Interpreting, analysing and evaluating
Expressing and developing ideas Creating literature Creating texts
Sound and letter knowledge

Content descriptors are online and will inform teacher’s programming

www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/English/Content-structure

Assessment

Assessment includes:

  • NAPLAN
  • PROBE Comprehension assessments
  • Ongoing checklists
  • Observations and Anecdotal notes
  • Portfolio
  • Rubrics to assess skills and content
  • Comprehensive Assessment of Reading Strategies (CARS)

Resources

English Resources referenced regularly include:

  • CARS and STARS
  • Australian Curriculum aligned resources from Professional Development sessions and online sources
  • IWB Flipchart on the Garden Server
  • Word Up Spelling Book 5

Benchmarks and Recommendations

Writing – In Year 5, students are expected to write two examples of a genre each term, with one of the work samples integrated into their Inquiry topic.

Spelling – Students are expected to learn the spelling patterns of up to 15 words each week and are expected to be able to demonstrate correct spelling of all common words and some complex words in their writing.

Reading –The expected reading level at the end of grade 3 is level 30 +, which assumes independent reading across a variety of texts.

Year 5 Achievement Standard

Receptive modes (listening, reading and viewing)

By the end of Year 5, students explain how text structures assist in understanding the text. They understand how language features, images and vocabulary influence interpretations of characters, settings and events.

They analyse and explain literal and implied information from a variety of texts. They describe how events, characters and settings in texts are depicted and explain their own responses to them. They listen and ask questions to clarify content.

Productive modes (speaking, writing and creating)

Students use language features to show how ideas can be extended. They develop and explain a point of view about a text, selecting information, ideas and images from a range of resources.

Students create a variety of sequenced texts for different purposes and audiences. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, taking into account other perspectives. When writing, they demonstrate understanding of grammar, select specific vocabulary and use accurate spelling and punctuation, editing their work to provide structure and meaning.

 

 

 

Year 6

The English curriculum is built around the three interrelated strands of Language, Literature and Literacy. Teaching and learning programs should balance and integrate all three strands. The focus is on developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills in listening, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating.

Overview

In English, students explore a range of texts with different text structures, depending on purpose and audience. They learn how language features, images and vocabulary help to engage the interest of audiences. They then use appropriate language features, images and vocabulary to create structured texts that suit the purpose and audience. They also learn to describe literal and implied meaning using different reading strategies to connect ideas in different texts. They explain their preferences for particular texts and respond to other’s viewpoints. The range of literary texts comprises Australian literature, including the oral narrative traditions and contemporary literature of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, and the classic and contemporary world literature, including texts from and about Asia. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions. They listen for significant points in discussions.

Lesson Structure

In Year 6, students actively participate in Shared Reading Sessions as well as Reciprocal/Guided Reading Sessions. These sessions usually take place in the morning and include reading and writing. When students are doing guided reading, they are exposed to reading cues, word study and grammar skills. Reading strategies are taught explicitly through the CARS and STARS program and the implementation of reciprocal reading teaches students to use reading comprehension strategies independently. These strategies include text prediction, summarisation, question generation and clarification of unknown or unclear content. During writing sessions students practice handwriting and are also exposed to different text types such as narrative, recount, explanation and procedure throughout the year.

Word study and grammar skills will be focused on a weekly basis and students will focus on weekly spelling words which are used during mathematics classes and science classes. During grammar classes, students become very familiar with various nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, clauses and other language features relevant to the texts they are learning about.

Students are exposed to two novels (Island or the Blue Dolphin and Two Hands Together) throughout the year, which are read as a whole class and followed through with activities. This explicit reading allows students to ask questions promptly on aspects of the chapter they haven’t understood and consolidates their comprehension and vocabulary skills.

Scope and Sequences

Garden College has an established genre scope and sequence which is followed when teaching English. Elements of Language, Literature and Literacy from the table below are integrated and taught through the genre focused on, throughout each unit.

Language Literature Literacy 
Language variation and change Literature and context Texts in context
Language for interaction Responding to literature Interacting with others
Text structure and organisation Examining literature Interpreting, analysing and evaluating
Expressing and developing ideas Creating literature Creating texts
Sound and letter knowledge

Content descriptors are online and will inform teacher’s programming

www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/English/Content-structure

Assessment

Assessment includes:

  • PROBE Comprehension assessments
  • Ongoing checklists
  • Observations and Anecdotal notes
  • Portfolio
  • Rubrics to assess skills and content
  • Comprehensive Assessment of Reading Strategies (CARS)

Resources

English Resources referenced regularly include:

  • CARS and STARS
  • Grammar through text types
  • English for a Purpose
  • IWB Flipchart on Garden Server
  • Word Up Spelling Book 6

Benchmarks and Recommendations

Writing – In Year 6, students are expected to write two examples of a genre each term, with one of the work samples integrated into their Inquiry topic.

Spelling – Students are expected to learn the spelling patterns of up to 15 words each week and are expected to be able to demonstrate correct spelling of all common words and some complex words in their writing.

Reading – Students are expected to be reading novels independently in year 6.

Year 6 Achievement Standard

Receptive modes (listening, reading and viewing)

By the end of Year 6, students understand how the use of text structures can achieve particular effects. They analyse and explain how language features, images and vocabulary are used by different authors to represent ideas, characters and events.

Students compare and analyse information in different texts, explaining literal and implied meaning. They select and use evidence from a text to explain their response to it. They listen to discussions, clarifying content and challenging others’ ideas.

Productive modes (speaking, writing and creating)

Students understand how language features and language patterns can be used for emphasis. They show how specific details can be used to support a point of view. They explain how their choices of language features and images are used.

Students create detailed texts elaborating on key ideas for a range of purposes and audiences. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, using a variety of strategies for effect. They demonstrate understanding of grammar, make considered choices from an expanding vocabulary, use accurate spelling and punctuation for clarity and make and explain editorial choices.